Graphical Abstract

Previous Issue

JMSJ, 2022, Vol. 100, No. 1 (February)

Article

Shibata and Naoe (2022)

Shibata, K. and H. Naoe, 2022: Decadal amplitude modulations of the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 100,
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2022-001.Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: Analyses of Singapore radiosonde and reanalysis data from 1950s show that the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the equatorial stratosphere is decadally modulated in the amplitude as well as in the period. These two decadal variations are positively correlated with each other after 1980s, while they show approximately negative correlation before 1980s. The decadal amplitude variations of the QBO are not correlated with the solar cycle, but closely and positively correlated with the decadal components of Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTa), Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) index, and North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO) index, suggesting that the tropical SSTa in the central Pacific substantially influences the QBO in the decadal time-scales.

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Notes and Correspondence: Special Edition on Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM): 5th Anniversary

Nakai et al. (2022)

Nakai, S., K. Yamashita, H. Motoyoshi, T. Kumakura, S. Murakami, and T. Katsushima, 2021: Relationships between radar reflectivity factor and liquid-equivalent snowfall rate derived by direct comparison of X-band radar and disdrometer observations in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 100,
Special Edition on Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM): 5th Anniversary,
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2022-002.Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: The relationships between the radar reflectivity factor for horizontal polarization (Zh) at X-band and liquid-equivalent snowfall rate (R), of the form Zh = B R1.67, are presented for six hydrometeor classes of solid precipitation. Snow aggregates demonstrated a stronger or weaker backscattering than graupel of the same R depending on the riming degree and types of constituent ice crystals in the X-band.

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Article

Chang et al. (2022)

Chang, Y., Q. Ma, L. Guo, J. Duan, J. Li, X. Zhang, X. Guo, X. Lou, and B. Chen, 2022: Characteristics of raindrop size distributions during Meiyu season in Mount Lushan, eastern China. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 100,
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2022-003.Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This paper aims to develop a graupel and hail identification algorithm for GPM DPR. This algorithm is constructed using a precipitation type index (PTI) defined for DPR. The PTI is effective in separating hydrometeor types and is calculated using measurements of reflectivity, dual-frequency ratio, and storm top height data. The output of the algorithm is a Boolean product representing the existence of graupel or hail along with the vertical profile for each Ku- and Ka-band matched footprint. Cross validation is performed with the Weather Service Radar (WSR-88D) network over continental United States as well as during the Remote sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) experiment. Evaluation of this identification algorithm is performed on a global basis, which illustrates promising comparisons with the global lightning and hail precipitation maps generated using radar and radiometer.

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