Nakai, S., K. Yamashita, H. Motoyoshi, T. Kumakura, S. Murakami, and T. Katsushima, 2021: Relationships between radar reflectivity factor and liquid-equivalent snowfall rate derived by direct comparison of X-band radar and disdrometer observations in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 100,
Special Edition on Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM): 5th Anniversary,
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Plain Language Summary:
The relationships between the radar reflectivity factor for horizontal polarization (Zh) at X-band and liquid-equivalent snowfall rate (R), of the form Zh = B R1.67, are presented for six hydrometeor classes of solid precipitation. Snow aggregates demonstrated a stronger or weaker backscattering than graupel of the same R depending on the riming degree and types of constituent ice crystals in the X-band.
- The average B value for the “heavily rimed snow aggregate” was smaller than that for the “rimed snow aggregate”.
- The largest B value was derived for a case of aggregates of unrimed dendritic particle (unrimed-D class). The case involving the aggregates of unrimed low-temperature-type crystals (unrimed-C class) showed the smallest B value.
- For graupel cases, the average B value was roughly twice that of the rimed and heavily rimed snow aggregate classes and much smaller than that of the unrimed-D class.