Graphical Abstract

Nakamura, K., Y. Kaneko, K. Nakagawa, and H. Hanado, 2021: Radiowave scattering characteristics of melting layer measured by a dual Ka-band radar system. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 99,
Special Edition on Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM): 5th Anniversary,
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Plain Language Summary: Specific attenuation and equivalent radar reflectivity in a melting layer were measured using a dual Ka-band radar system. When the two radars are arranged to face each other and a precipitation system comes between the two radars, they observe the system from opposite directions. The radar echoes suffer from rain attenuation, which appears symmetrically in both radar echo profiles. By differentiating measured radar reflectivity with range, the specific attenuation (k) can be estimated. After obtaining the specific attenuation, the equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) is estimated. Melting layer observations were conducted on a slope of Mt. Zao, Japan. The relationship between k and Ze showed interesting characteristic which appears in a loop-shape on a k-Ze diagram. A simple theoretical study explained this characteristic.