Seiki, T., 2021: Near-global three-dimensional hail signals detected by using GPM-DPR observations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 99, 379-402.
Special Edition on Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM): 5th Anniversary,
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2021-018 Graphical Abstract Published
Plain Language Summary: Hail is a large dense ice particle and its particle size often reaches more than 1 cm. Hail is known to be associated with intense storms and causes severe damage to cars, buildings, and croplands. In general, hail has been observed by weather radar systems or reported from visual check on the ground. Such the observations are limited to developed countries and populated regions and, hence, global three-dimensional structure of hail has not been analyzed yet. This study proposed a method to detect hail signals using space-borne radar observations and successfully illustrated a near-global three-dimensional hail map. This new dataset for hail is to be utilized for improving weather forecasting and risk management of hail disasters in the global scale.
- Near-global three-dimensional distribution of hail is obtained by using a dual-frequency precipitation radar.
- Hail signals lie along collisional growth curves on the scatter diagram of the radar reflectivity factors.
- Hail is widely distributed over the ocean and is frequently observed near the freezing level.