Graphical Abstract

Hitchman, M. H., S. Yoden, P. H. Haynes, V. Kumar, and S. Tegtmeier, 2021: An observational history of the direct influence of the stratospheric Quasi-biennial Oscillation on the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 99, Review Articles,
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2021-012
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Plain Language Summary: The history of observational studies regarding the influence of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the tropical and subtropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) is described. The seasonal and geographical variation of QBO westerly (W) minus easterly (E) differences in UTLS temperature, pressure, and zonal wind is presented. Results from the periods 1958-1978 and 1978-2000 using National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses are compared with modern updates using Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA2) data for 1980-2017, and European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting Reanalysis – Interim (ERA-Interim) data for 1979-2018.  

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