Graphical Abstract

Thundathil, R., T. Schwitalla, A. Behrendt, S. K. Muppa, S. Adam, and V. Wulfmeyer, 2020: Assimilation of lidar water vapour mixing ratio and temperature profiles into a convection-permitting model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 98, 959-986.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract with highlights

Plain Language Summary: Ground-based lidar instruments measure profiles of atmospheric moisture and temperature with very high quality and resolution. We show that these data improve the forecasts of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Our model has a grid resolution of 2.5 km, which permits to resolve deep convection. In order to use the new data, we developed a forward operator for the direct assimilation of water vapour mixing ratio (WVMR), a primary variable in the prognostic equations of the WRF model.