Ding et al (2019)
Ding, J., Y. Chen, Y. Wang, and X. Xu, 2019: The Southeasterly Gale in Tianshan Grand Canyon in Xinjiang, China: A case study. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97,
Early Online Release Graphical Abstract
Plain Language Summary: On 8 June 2013, a strong southeasterly gale attacked Urumchi, the provincial capital of Xinjiang, China, giving rise to great damage. This work studies the formation of the gale incident according to observations and numerical simulation, suggesting the importance of topographic forcing of Tianshan Mountains.
- The southeasterly gale occurred at the northwest opening of Tianshan Grand Canyon. Its formation was closely related to the topographic forcing of Tianshan Mountains.
- The intensification of pressure gradient across the Tianshan Grand Canyon was the advantageous condition for the generation of the southeasterly gale.
- Air current sank on the northwest opening of the canyon due to unstable stratification caused by nonlinear process and thus strengthened the gale.
Plain Language Summary: There is still a lot of uncertainty regarding the statistical characteristics of wind gusts. This study clarified the frequency and spatiotemporal distribution of wind gusts throughout Japan by statistically analyzing the surface observational data of the last 16 years. The frequency of wind gusts with more than 25 m s–1 averaged across all observatories is 0.97 per year, which is four or five orders of magnitude higher than the tornado encounter probability in Japan.
- This study is the first to statistically analyze wind gusts using surface meteorological observations throughout Japan.
- The frequency of wind gusts averaged over all observatories is 1.47 per year (0.97 for wind gusts with more than 25 m s–1). The coastal regions experience an approximately threefold higher frequency of wind gusts than the inland areas (Fig. 1).
- The wind gusts have high activities during daytime, especially between 13:00 and 17:00 JST.
- Approximately half of the typhoon-associated wind gusts occur in the right-front quadrant of a typhoon with respect to the typhoon motion (Fig. 2).