Graphical Abstract

Previous Issue

JMSJ, 2019, Vol. 97, No. 1 (February)

Invited Review Articles

Murakami (2019)

Murakami, M., 2019: Inner structures of snow clouds over the Sea of Japan observed by instrumented aircraft: A review. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 5-38.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-009Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: Snow clouds, which bring heavy snowfall to populated coastal plains, have been extensively studied by analyzing data acquired by aerological, meteorological satellite, and radar observations, or conducting numerical simulations. Because of the difficulties with accessing cloud systems over the ocean, however, few in situ observation data have been available, and up until the middle 1990s, many problems remained unsolved or their analysis and simulation results had not been validated. Here we review knowledge gained from instrumented aircraft observations, made from the middle 1990s through the early 2000s.

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Articles

Mashiko (2019)

Mashiko, W., 2019: A statistical study of wind gusts in Japan using surface observations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 39-54.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-001Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: There is still a lot of uncertainty regarding the statistical characteristics of wind gusts. This study clarified the frequency and spatiotemporal distribution of wind gusts throughout Japan by statistically analyzing the surface observational data of the last 16 years. The frequency of wind gusts with more than 25 m s–1 averaged across all observatories is 0.97 per year, which is four or five orders of magnitude higher than the tornado encounter probability in Japan.

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Ding et al (2019)

Ding, J., Y. Chen, Y. Wang, and X. Xu, 2019: The Southeasterly Gale in Tianshan Grand Canyon in Xinjiang, China: A case study. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 55-67.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-002Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: On 8 June 2013, a strong southeasterly gale attacked Urumchi, the provincial capital of Xinjiang, China, giving rise to great damage. This work studies the formation of the gale incident according to observations and numerical simulation, suggesting the importance of topographic forcing of Tianshan Mountains.

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Nayak et al (2019)

Nayak, S., and T. Takemi, 2019: Dynamical downscaling of Typhoon Lionrock (2016) for assessing the resulting hazards under global warming. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 69-88.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-003Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: Recent studies have revealed that typhoons will be stronger and more powerful in a future warmer climate and be a threat to lives and properties. The present study attempted to perform dynamical downscaling simulations of Typhoon Lionrock (2016) at 1-km grid resolution by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to discuss the track and intensity of this typhoon and associated precipitation amount in the target region after landfall in present climate and under Pseudo Global Warming (PGW) conditions.

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Zhang et al (2019)

Zhang, S., G. Ren, Y. Ren, and X. Sun, 2019: Comparison of surface air temperature between observation and reanalysis data over eastern China for the last 100 years. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 89-103.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-004Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study aimed to improve understanding of the differences in surface air temperature data between homogenized observations and reanalysis (20CR and ERA20C) since the beginning of the 20th century and to address the reanalysis data error.

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Fukushima et al (2019)

Fukushima, H., T. Yazaki, T. Hirota, Y. Iwata, A. Wajima, and A. Yokota, 2019: Factors and mechanisms affecting the air temperature distribution on a clear winter night in a snow-covered mesoscale plain. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 105-121.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-005Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: To clarify how the low temperatures in winter nights form, we analyzed the effects of topography and boundary-layer wind on the temperature distribution and vertical profiles of boundary-layer atmospheric conditions of the Tokachi region for a winter night using numerical simulations. From the distribution of vapor mixing ratio, we revealed unique processes of the development of surface temperature distribution influenced by inversion layer formation and katabatic drainage flow (Figures 1 and 2).

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Kitoh et al (2019)

Kitoh, A., and H. Endo, 2019: Future changes in precipitation extremes associated with tropical cyclones projected by large-ensemble simulations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 141-152.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-007Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: Previous studies projected future changes of precipitation extremes such as an annual maximum one-day precipitation total (Rx1d) itself. Thanks to large-ensemble simulations, we can now investigate projected future changes of extremes in once-in-a-10-year and once-in-a-100-year rare events. It is found that such a rare event will increase in a region extending from Hawaii to the south of Japan, implying an increasing risk of rare heavier rainfall events there by global warming.

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Zhu et al (2019)

Zhu, X.-S., and H. Yu, 2019: Environmental influences on the intensity and configuration of tropical cyclone concentric eyewalls in the western North Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 153-173.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-008Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: The observed intensity changes of tropical cyclones (TCs) with concentric eyewalls (CEs) often varied case from case. This study establishes a relationship between intensity changes and CE patterns, and also shows the environmental influences on the configuration of different CE patterns. The results may be beneficial for forecasting intensity fluctuations of a TC with CE from the current environmental configurations.

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Jin et al (2019)

Jin, H., Y. Jin, and J. D. Doyle, 2019: An evaluation of COAMPS-TC real-time forecasts for Super Typhoon Nepartak (2016). J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 191-203.
Special Edition on Tropical Cyclones in 2015–2016
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-011Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: Typhoon Nepartak was a category 5 tropical cyclone of 2016 and had significant societal impacts. It went through a rapid intensification (RI), with an increase of maximum wind speed of 51 m s−1 and a decrease of minimum sea level pressure of 74 hPa in 42 h. The real-time forecast from the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System – Tropical Cyclone (COAMPS-TC), starting from 1200 UTC 3 July, predicted the track and intensity reasonably well for Super Typhoon Nepartak and captured the storm’s RI process.

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Yamazaki et al (2019)

Yamazaki, A., M. Honda, and H. Kawase, 2019: Regional snowfall distributions in a Japan-Sea side area of Japan associated with jet variability and blocking. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 205-226.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-012Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study investigated the relationships between well-known dominant regional snowfall distributions in the Niigata area, intraseasonal jet variability over Eurasia, and atmospheric blocking. Snowfalls in plain (P-type), mountainous (M-type), and the whole (PM-type) areas of Niigata were controlled by quasi-stationary Rossby waves along the subpolar, subtropical, and both jets, respectively. Blocking over the Siberian regions enhanced cold air outbreaks intruding toward Japan and contributed the P-, M-, and PM-type snowfalls.

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Vitanova et al (2019)

Vitanova, L. L., H. Kusaka, V. Q. Doan, and A. Nishi, 2019: Numerical study of the urban heat island in Sendai City with potential natural vegetation and the 1850s and 2000s land-use data. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 227-252.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-013Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study investigates the impact of urbanization on surface air temperature and the urban heat island (UHI) for Sendai City during the 150-year period. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with 1-km horizontal resolution and three land-use datasets, one for potential natural vegetation (PNV) data, the other two for realistic land-use data (the 1850s and 2000s). The results from this article may be beneficial for better urban planning of Sendai City because it was damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011.

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Maejima et al (2019)

Maejima, Y., T. Miyoshi, M. Kunii, H. Seko, and K. Sato, 2019: Impact of dense and frequent surface observations on 1-minute-update severe rainstorm prediction: A simulation study. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 253-273.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-014Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study aims to investigate the potential impact of surface observations with a high spatial and temporal density on a local heavy rainstorm case that caused five fatalities in Kobe, Japan on July 28, 2008. The control experiment (CTRL) assimilates only the phased array weather radar (PAWR) data, and two sensitivity experiments are performed to investigate the impact of additional surface observations obtained every minute at 8 (S8) and 167 (S167) stations in Kobe. The results show that the dense and frequent surface observations have a significant positive impact on the analyses and forecasts of the local heavy rainstorm (Fig. 1).

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Yamaguchi et al (2019)

Yamaguchi, J., Y. Kanno, G. Chen, and T. Iwasaki, 2019: Cold air mass analysis of the record-breaking cold surge event over East Asia in January 2016. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, 275-293.
https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-015Graphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: An extreme cold surge event occurred in January 2016 was studied by means of the isentropic cold airmass analysis method. We traced the cold air masses below a potential temperature of 280K more than a week, and found that a clump of thick cold air masses gathered on the eastern Siberia, moved to Lake Baikal, and then spilled southeastward over East Asia.

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JMSJ, 2019, Vol. 97, No. 3 (June)

Articles

Seguchi et al (2019)

Seguchi, T., S. Iwasaki, M. Kamogawa, T. Ushiyama, and H. Okamoto, 2019: Observation of jumping cirrus with ground-based cameras, radiosonde, and Himawari-8. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-033.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This is the first study where jumping cirrus (JC), a cirriform cloud which literally jumps up and drifts away at the top of anvil of deep convective clouds, is analyzed based on the observation with ground-based visible cameras. Combined with a star chart, infrared band of Himawari-8, and radiosonde, JC’s size, timescale, and environmental atmosphere were investigated for 14 cases during the summer in the Kanto area, Japan. The results showed that even if the underlying convection is relatively weak, JC can occur and 3 cases of JC entered the lower stratosphere. JC is likely to moisten the lower stratosphere by sublimation and contribute to the estimation of stratospheric water vapor.

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Saunders et al (2019)

Saunders, P., Y. Yu, and Z. Pu, 2019: Sensitivity of numerical simulations of Hurricane Joaquin (2015) to cumulus parameterization schemes: Implications for processes controlling a hairpin turn in the track. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-030.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: Hurricane Joaquin, a notable hurricane over the Atlantic Ocean in 2015, is studied with emphasis on its unique hairpin turn that occurred between 2100 UTC 1 October and 0600 UTC 2 October 2015. A series of mesoscale high-resolution numerical simulations are performed with an advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Results indicate that middle- to upper-level steering flows are crucial in influencing Joaquin’s track. The middle-level blocking high also plays a vital role in Joaquin’s movement. Specifically, the asymmetry and local absolute vorticity tendency over the inner-core region and its vicinity has a strong implication for Joaquin’s hairpin turn.

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Wada et al (2019)

Wada, A., H. Tsugiti, K. Okamoto, and N. Seino, 2019: Air-sea coupled data assimilation experiment for Typhoons Kilo, Etau and the September 2015 Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall with the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 sea surface temperature. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, Special Edition on Tropical Cyclones in 2015–2016, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-029.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study investigated the influence of sea surface temperature (SST) on the September 2015 Kanto-Tohoku heavy rainfall event using a regional air-sea strongly coupled data assimilation system. The air-sea coupled system improved the analysis of SST, air-sea latent heat fluxes, lower-atmospheric components and the stationary linear convective system including local torrential rain occurred around 37°N in the Tochigi prefecture.

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JMSJ, 2019, Vol. 97, No. 2 (April)

Articles

Murata et al (2019)

Murata, A., S. I. Watanabe, H. Sasaki, H. Kawase, and M. Nosaka, 2019: The development of a resolution-independent tropical cyclone detection scheme for high-resolution climate model simulations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-035.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: A new method for detecting tropical cyclones in high-resolution climate model simulations is proposed. The proposed method utilizes a two-dimensional scatterplot based on two quantities that represent the radial gradient and the tangential asymmetry of mid-to upper-level thickness around a simulated vortex. A comparison between the modeled and observed tropical cyclones over a part of the western North Pacific near Japan shows promising results. The detection method is only weakly dependent on the horizontal resolution.

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Kuo et al (2019)

Kuo, K.-T., and C.-M. Wu, 2019: The precipitation hotspots of afternoon thunderstorms over the Taipei Basin: Idealized numerical simulations. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-031.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: During summertime in Taipei, the afternoon thunderstorms usually occur at the south of Taipei basin, a signal of precipitation hotspot. The idealized simulations show that the local circulation is a key for the hotspots. The two valleys guide background southwesterly flow along with the sea breezes to penetrate the basin. The urban heat island effect enhances the sea breeze convergence at the south of the basin and produces strong convection there. Besides, the background wind direction is essential in determining the location of sea breeze convergence. If the background wind direction changes from westerly to west-northwesterly, there might be no precipitation at all in the basin.

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Huang et al (2019)

Huang, W.-R., P.-H. Huang, Y.-H. Chang, C.-T. Cheng, H.-H. Hsu, C.-Y. Tu, and A. Kitoh, 2019: Dynamical downscaling simulation and future projection of extreme precipitation activities in Taiwan during the Mei-Yu seasons. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-028.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study investigates the dynamical downscaling simulation and future projection of extreme precipitation activities (including intensity and frequency) in Taiwan during the Mei-Yu seasons (May and June). The future projections show that extreme precipitation will become more frequent and more intense over western Taiwan, but less frequent and less intense over eastern Taiwan. Further examinations of the significance of the projected changes in extreme precipitation that affect the agriculture regions of Taiwan show that the southwestern agriculture regions will be affected by extreme precipitation events more frequently and more intensely than the other subregions.

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Liu et al (2019)

Liu, Y., G. Tang, L. Wu, Y. Wu, and M. Yang, 2019: Variations in reference evapotranspiration and associated driving forces in the Pearl River Delta of China during 1960-2016. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-027.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study aimed to answer the question: what are the dominant factors affecting the variations of reference evapotranspiration (RET) in the Pearl River Delta of China? Our results indicated that the land use change-induced shifts in surface albedo were responsible for RET variations. Besides, the roles of climatic factors varied across sub-regions. The changes in sunshine duration and wind speed were the two dominant factors in decreasing RET in Guangzhou and Zengcheng, whereas the variations of temperature and relative humidity were responsible for RET increase in Taishan, Zhongshan and Shenzhen, respectively.

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Takasaki et al (2019)

Takasaki, Y., M. Yoshizaki, A. Suzuki-Parker, and Y. Watarai, 2019: Sensitivity of quasi-stationary band-shaped precipitation system to topography: A case study for 28 August 2008 Okazaki heavy rainfall event. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-026.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study presents sensitivity numerical experiments to examine the impact of surrounding mountainous topography on the quasi-stationarity of the precipitation system using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with 500 m horizontal resolution. In an experiment without the mountains to the east of Okazaki city, the quasi-stationary precipitation system was not reproduced. On the other hand, experiments including eastside mountains produced a lowlevel convergence in south of Okazaki city, resulting in the quasi-stationary precipitation system and prolonged precipitation as observed near Okazaki city.

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Fudeyasu et al (2019)

Fudeyasu, H., and R. Yoshida, 2019: Statistical analysis of the relationship between upper tropospheric cold lows and tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, Special Edition on Tropical Cyclones in 2015–2016, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-025.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study examined the statistical characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) for which the cyclogenesis (TCG) process was modulated by upper tropospheric cold lows (UCLs) over the western North Pacific during the 38 years from 1979 to 2016. Most TCs having TCG influenced by UCLs in the northwest quadrant of the TC region (UL-TCs) occurred in the summer, with large variability in the annual occurrence rate of UL-TCs during June to October, ranging from 0 to approximately 30%. The annual variation was related to the activity of the Tibetan high and the summer temperature anomaly over Japan. The UL-TCs at the time of TCG were more favorable for the development of TCs. In contrast, the atmospheric and oceanic environmental parameters around UL-TCs at the time of tropical storm formation (TSF) were less favorable for the development of TSs, such that UL-TCs tended to remain at weak in intensity.

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Kawai et al (2019)

Kawai, Y., H. Nishikawa, and E. Oka, 2019: In situ evidence of low-level atmospheric responses to the Oyashio front in early spring. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-024.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: In situ observations to capture atmospheric responses to the Oyashio (or subarctic) sea surface temperature (SST) front had not been carried out. Our intensive observations showed clear contrasts in the low-level atmosphere and cloud across the Oyashio front. Furthermore, we observed narrow, warm ocean areas with a width of a few kilometers and their effects on the atmosphere.

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Yoshino (2019)

Yoshino, K., 2019: Low-level wind shear induced by horizontal roll vortices at Narita International Airport, Japan. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-023.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: Aircraft making landing and takeoff at Narita International Airport in Japan frequently report low-level wind shear (LLWS) with turbulence when the prevailing wind is southwesterly, which is crosswind to the runway direction. This study used observational data by a landing aircraft at the runway 16R and a single-Doppler lidar to demonstrate the existence and structure of horizontal roll vortices (HRVs) causing the LLWS encountered by the aircraft.

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Fujita et al (2019)

Fujita, M., T. Sato, T. J. Yamada, S. Kawazoe, M. Nakano, and K. Ito, 2019: Analyses of extreme precipitation associated with the Kinugawa River flood in September 2015 using a large ensemble downscaling experiment. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, Special Edition on Tropical Cyclones in 2015–2016, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-022.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: We investigated extremely heavy precipitation that occurred around the Kinugawa River, Japan, in September 2015, and the probability of extreme precipitation occurrence, using data from a large ensemble forecast of more than 1,000 members that were dynamically downscaled to 1.6 km horizontal grid spacing. This extreme precipitation event occurred under specific conditions: two coexisting typhoons at close proximity that produced a high atmospheric instability, and water vapor transported from the Pacific Ocean.

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Shusse et al (2019)

Shusse, Y., T. Maesaka, K. Kieda, and K. Iwanami, 2019: Polarimetric radar observation of the melting layer in a winter precipitation system associated with a south-coast cyclone in Japan. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-021.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study describes the spatial distribution of the melting layer (ML) in a winter stratiform precipitation system associated with a south-coast cyclone over the Kanto Plain using an X-band polarimetric radar at Funabashi. The detailed horizontal distribution of surface precipitation types based on weather reports from citizens was also investigated in relation to the ML structure. This study revealed the unique structure of the ML associated with a cold air mass in the lower atmosphere and suggested that the detection of the ML using polarimetric radars is effective for determining surface rainfall and snowfall areas.

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Kajino et al (2019)

Kajino, M., M. Deushi, T. T. Sekiyama, N. Oshima, K. Yumimoto, T. Y. Tanaka, J. Ching, A. Hashimoto, T. Yamamoto, M. Ikegami, A. Kamada, M. Miyashita, Y. Inomata, S. Shima, A. Takami, A. Shimizu, S. Hatakeyama, Y. Sadanaga, H. Irie, K. Adachi, Y. Zaizen, Y. Igarashi, H. Ueda, T. Maki, and M. Mikami, 2019: NHM-Chem, the Japan Meteorological Agency’s regional meteorology – Chemistry model: model evaluations toward the consistent predictions of the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosols. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-020.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: A regional meteorology – chemistry model (NHM-Chem) has been developed for various operational and research purposes such as simulations of oxidant, Kosa, PM2.5, contaminations of land and ocean ecosystems, and aerosol size and chemistry both of which are important for health and regional climate change. In order to consistently evaluate the model performance, the simulated results need to be verified from various aspects. Methods to evaluate the model are suggested and the results obtained from the evaluation are presented in the paper.

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Ose (2019)

Ose, T., 2019: Characteristics of future changes in summertime East Asian monthly precipitation in MRI-AGCM global warming experiments. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-018.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: Global warming experiments using three different 60 km-mesh atmospheric global circulation models are studied to characterize future changes in monthly East Asian precipitation for June to August. Wetting and drying effects due to changes in mean vertical motion are related adiabatically to the projected modification of 500 hPa horizontal atmospheric circulation, which is characterized by two cyclonic circulation anomalies extending over the eastern Eurasian Continent (C1) and the western North Pacific Ocean (C2) for each month (Figure 1).

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Notes and Correspondence

Jinno et al (2019)

Jinno, T., T. Miyakawa, and M. Satoh, 2019: NICAM predictability of the monsoon gyre over the western North Pacific during August 2016. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, Special Edition on Tropical Cyclones in 2015–2016, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-017.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: A series of hindcast simulations were performed using the nonhydrostatic icosahedral atmospheric model (NICAM) to reproduce the temporal evolution of the monsoon gyre in August 2016. The simulations that were initiated at dates during the mature stage of the monsoon gyre successfully reproduced its termination and the subsequent intensification of the Bonin high, whereas the simulations initiated before the formation and during the developing stage of the gyre failed to reproduce subsequent gyre evolution even at a short lead time.

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JMSJ, 2019, Vol. 97, No. 1 (February)

Articles

Fang et al (2019)

Fang, Y., B. Li, and X. Liu, 2019: Predictability and prediction skill of the boreal summer intra-seasonal oscillation in BCC_CSM model. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-019.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: This study examines the theoretically estimated predictability and practical prediction skill of the he East Asia and western North Pacific boreal summer intra-seasonal oscillation (BSISO) in the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC_CSM2.0). Results show that the prediction skill and predictability of BSISO in BCC_CSM2.0 are 14 and 24-28 days respectively. The model shows a strong dependence on initial/target BSISO phase and amplitude.

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Inatsu et al (2019)

Inatsu, M., H. Suzuki, and M. Kajino, 2019: Relative risk assessment for hypothetical radioactivity emission at a snow climate site. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-010.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: We assessed relative risk for hypothetical radioactivity emission from the Tomari Nuclear Power Plant in Hokkaido, Japan. With a brand-new risk evaluation method, we found that the risk was higher in the eastern part of the target area owing to the westerly flow.

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Oda et al (2019)

Oda, M., and H. Kanehisa, 2019: A simple model of the resonant interaction between vortex Rossby and gravity waves. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 97, https://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2019-006.
Early Online ReleaseGraphical Abstract

Plain Language Summary: We show a simple conceptual model of the resonant interaction in a typhoon-like vortex between vortex Rossby waves (VRWs) and gravity waves (GWs), which are caused by the VRWs. The proposed conceptual model is based onthe buoyancy-vorticity formulation (BV-thinking), and is different from that for the barotropic and baroclinic instabilities based on PV interactions (PV-thinking).
We consider disturbances of the first baroclinic mode on a basic barotropic vortex. The disturbance vertical vorticity ζ of the VRW in the central region has a large amplitude on the upper and lower levels. The disturbance buoyancy b and radial vorticity η of the GW in the outer region have a large amplitude on the middle level.

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