Invited Review Articles
- An overview of the Asian monsoon and its change as simulated by AOGCMs and high-resolution AGCMs, focusing on the seasonal mean circulation and precipitation climatology. It consists of "Elements that affect the monsoon", "The monsoon in the historical period", and "Future projections of monsoons".
- Overall projections are similar for both CMIP3 and CMIP5 models, with increases in precipitation, albeit with weakened circulations in the South Asian summer, enhanced circulations and increased precipitation in the East Asian summer, and latitude–dependent changes in the winter monsoon circulation in East Asia. However, differences exist in the projected local changes, leading to uncertainty in projections.
Yoshida et al (2017)
Yoshida, R., Y. Miyamoto, H. Tomita, and Y. Kajikawa, 2017: The effect of water vapor on tropical cyclone genesis: A numerical experiment of a non-developing disturbance observed in PALAU2010. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 95, 35-47.
http://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2017-001 Graphical Abstract
- The environmental conditions for tropical cyclone genesis is examined by numerical experiment. We clarify the importance of abundant moisture around the disturbance for continuous convection and demonstrate that the collocation of a mid-level vortex and a low-level vortex, i.e., the persistence of an upright structure of vortices, is important in tropical cyclone genesis.
- The experiment based on reanalysis data, the disturbance did not develop into a tropical cyclone in spite of the existence of the mid-level and low-level vortices (Fig. 1).
- In the experiment with increased water vapor content, a tropical cyclone was formed from the disturbance. The presence of persistent upright vortices was supported by continuous convection until genesis of tropical cyclone (Fig. 2).
Suwarman et al (2017)
Suwarman, R., K. Ichiyanagi, M. Tanoue, K. Yoshimura, S. Mori, M. D. Yamanaka, F. Syamsudin, and H. A. Belgaman, 2017: El Niño Southern Oscillation signature in atmospheric
water isotopes over Maritime Continent during wet season. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 95, 49-66.
http://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2017-003 Graphical Abstract
Special Edition on Contributions to Asia Oceania Atmospheric Sciences
- The study shows the response of stable isotopes in precipitation to ENSO events and the spatial distribution of water sources from a particular region in order to understand how water vapor from a particular region might influence the isotopic variability due to ENSO using a simulated isotopic model (Figure 1).
- In addition, we propose several plausible factors that control the isotopic variation during ENSO. In General, the depletion and enrichment of stable isotopes correspond to the appearance of zones of convergence and divergence over the Maritime Continent during La Niña and El Niño, respectively.
- An asymmetric ENSO feature is found in this study, evidenced by the similar contributions of water source quantity from the northern Maritime Continent and the Pacific Ocean during both ENSO phases.
Kawai et al (2017)
Kawai, Y., Q. Moteki, A. Kuwano-Yoshida, T. Enomoto, A. Manda, and H. Nakamura, 2017: Impact propagation of radiosonde data assimilation over the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension: Case study on the early summer (Baiu) in 2012. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 95, 71-90.
http://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2017-004 Graphical Abstract
- In order to investigate how perturbations caused over the Kuroshio or Kuroshio Extension (KE) grow and propagate across the North Pacific Ocean, the authors performed observing system experiments using two extra sets of radiosonde data obtained over the East China Sea (ECS) in mid-May and over the KE in early July.
- The impact of the extra data assimilated propagated eastward mainly due to the advection by the subtropical jet, and led to reinforcement of a cyclone over the Gulf of Alaska in mid-May.
- In the case of mid-May, the impact signal that emerged over the ECS on 15 May quickly propagated eastward in the upper troposphere. Another impact signal that appeared in the lower troposphere on 16 May travelled eastward and merged with the preceding one, which resulted in the reinforcement of the cyclone.
Tochimoto et al (2017)
Tochimoto, E., and T. Kawano, 2017: Numerical investigation of development processes of Baiu frontal depressions. Part I : Case studies. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 95, 91-109.
http://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2017-005 Graphical Abstract
- This work investigates development processes of Baiu frontal depressions (BFDs) using WRF model. Two typical cases were selected from BFDs that appeared in June and July, 2000-2007: a BFD that developed in the western part of the Baiu frontal zone (W-BFD) and a BFD that had formed in the eastern part of the Baiu frontal zone (E-BFD).
- The effect of latent heating is dominant during the W-BFD development, while baroclinicity as well as latent heating is important to the E-BFD development.
- The W-BFD has a development mechanism driven by latent heating. In the early developmental stage, PV near the W-BFD center is enhanced. This feature is consistent with the nonlinear conditional instability of the second kind mechanism. In the later developmental stage, PV is produced in front of the W-BFD center, in which low-level baroclinicity is large. This process is consistent with a diabatic Rossby vortex.
Zhao, Y., D. Wang, Z. Liang, and J. Xu, 2017: On the dynamics of the large-scale circulation during the persistent severe rainfall events in southern China. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 95, 111-125.
http://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2017-006 Graphical Abstract
- The study shows the dynamic features of the large-scale circulation for persistent severe rainfall (PSR) events during the rainy season (April to July) in southern China. The aim of the study was to understand the formation mechanism and improve forecasting. The circulation field and spatiotemporal distribution of waves at 500 hPa for different types of PSR were analyzed.
- During the pre-flood season (April to June) in southern China, troughs have the same phase in the middle latitudes as those in the high latitudes. The East Asia major trough (3–5 wave numbers) in the middle latitudes strengthens southwards and interacts with the 30°N subtropical high (1–2 wave numbers) from three days prior to the PSR events (Figure 1).
- During the post-flood season (June to July) in South China, the weather regime transitions occur on five days prior to the PSR events. The 40°N trough (2–4 wave numbers) strengthens southwards and interacts with the subtropical high (1–2 wave numbers). It is also affected by the blocking ridge (3 wave number) in the high latitudes (Figure 2).
- During the Mei-yu period (June to July) over the Yangtze–Huaihe River basin, the transitions of circulation pattern start three days prior to the PSR events. With the northwest development of the subtropical high, there is a transfer process from long to short waves in terms of energy for the trough at 50°N.
Ninomiya, K., 2017: A polar mesoscale cyclone formed over the East China Sea and developed into a secondary cyclone over the Northwestern Pacific: An observational case study on 19-22
February 1975. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 95,
Early Online Release Graphical Abstract
- Genesis of a polar mesoscale cyclone (PMC) over the East China Sea is studied using dense observation data, satellite cloud images and JRA-55 reanalysis data.
- PMCs frequently developed over the Japan Sea. Genesis of PMCs over the East China Sea is rare, but could occur under the certain synoptic-scale conditions.
- The PMC with comma-cloud formed within cyclonic polar-air streams induced by its synoptic-scale parent cyclone which developed near Japan. Within 3-hour after generation of the PMC, its central pressure deepened from 1016 hPa (at 00 UTC) to 1012 hPa (at 03 UTC). Strong surface winds occurred in the trail of the comma-cloud (Fig.1, left and middle).
- The large-scale condition for the generation stage was characterized by the southward intruding of the cold core in the upper cold trough beyond 34°N to the eastern East China Sea (Fig. 1, right), where the moist-neutral layer formed over the warm Tsushima Current.
- The PMC, after passing over Kyushu, developed as it moved eastward along the Pacific coast of Japan. It developed further in the low-level baroclinic zone over the Northwestern Pacific, into the secondary cyclone comparable to the parent cyclone (Fig.2). The large-scale conditions for the development were characterized by the upper cold trough and the low-level baroclinic zone formed over the zone of maximum sea-surface temperature gradient along north of the Kuroshio extension.
Li et al (2017)
Li, Y., P. L. Ye, J. Feng, Y. Lu, J. H. Wang, and Z. X. Pu, 2017: Simulation and projection of blocking highs in key regions of the Eurasia by CMIP5 models. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 95,
Early Online Release Graphical Abstract
- Taylor diagrams are used to quantify the correspondence between modeled and observed instantaneous blocking frequency in Eurasia (Fig. 1), revealing that most of the CMIP5 models simulate instantaneous blocking frequency better in wintertime than in summertime.
- Blocking episode frequency is underestimated by most of the 13 CMIP5 models in the Urals and Baikal regions, especially for short-duration blocking episodes (4–5 days). The simulations are superior in wintertime in the Urals and Baikal regions. Modeled blocking episode frequency is close to the observed value in summertime but overestimated in wintertime in Okhotsk. The possible cause for the unsatisfying performance of the models is investigated, and it is shown that the five models that are better at simulating blocking may be superior because of their resolution and prior ability to simulate ENSO.
- The multi-model ensemble mean frequency of blocking episodes clearly decreases in the whole year in the Urals and Baikal regions (especially blocking episodes with short duration) and increases a little in summertime of the Okhotsk region in the first half of the 21st century. The model ensemble-mean frequency of blocking episodes with long duration (more than 9 days) decreases by ∼40% in the Urals region but increases by no more than 5% in Okhotsk (Fig. 2).
Kuroda et al (2017)
- A new simple method of multivariable maximum covariance analysis (MMCA) for extracting common variability from multiple (more than two) datasets, that expands the singular value decomposition analysis method, is proposed. Two approaches of the method are proposed, one using the extreme of a summation of covariances (sum MMCA) and the other using the product of covariances (product MMCA).
- Both approaches are demonstrated by successfully extracting the variability related to the Arctic Oscillation from three monthly-mean meteorological datasets (e.g., Fig. 1).
- The method is useful because it is easily programmed and is computationally inexpensive.
Zhao et al (2017)
Zhao, Y., W. Mao, K. Zhang, Y. Ma, H. Li, and W. Zhang, 2017: Climatic variations in the boundary layer height of arid and semiarid areas in East Asia and North Africa. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 95,
Early Online Release Graphical Abstract
- From 1900 to 2010, in arid and semiarid area over East Asia, the BLH of the western areas had a decreasing trend, and the east had a rising trend (Fig. 1). While in arid and semiarid areas in North Africa, the BLH of the areas had a rising trend and other regions had a decreasing trend.
- On the spatial distribution, the BLH, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and volumetric soil water had a good corresponding relationship.
- On the temporal change, in East Asia, the BLH had a stronger correlation with the thermodynamic factors than the dynamic factors (Fig. 1), while in the North Africa, the BLH had a stronger correlation with the dynamic factors. Besides, the upper level stratification also has some influence on the BLH’s change.