JMSJ, 2015, Vol. 93, No. 6 (December)
Invited Review Article
Kato et al. (2015)
Kato, S., N. G. Loeb, D. A. Rutan, and F. G. Rose, 2015: Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant System (CERES) data products for climate research. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 93, 597-612.
http://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2015-048 Graphical Abstract
- The paper provides brief descriptions of algorithms used to produce level-2 and -3 CERES top-of-atmosphere and surface irradiance data products, their uncertainty and validation results. Figure 1 (above) extracted from the paper shows that surface irradiances from CERES EBAF-surface and SYN1deg-month data products agree with surface irradiances observed at validation sites to within their uncertainties.
- Using a simple analytical model, the paper discusses the method to detect top-of-atmosphere shortwave and longwave irradiance trends. It also shows that the time to detect trends depends on feedback parameters.
Kawai et al. (2015)
Kawai, H., S. Yabu, Y. Hagihara, T. Koshiro, and H. Okamoto, 2015: Characteristics of the cloud top heights of marine boundary layer clouds and the frequency of marine fog over mid-latitudes. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 93, 613-628.
http://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2015-045 Graphical Abstract
- The cloud top height of marine boundary layer clouds (MBLCs) in the mid-latitudes, which has received less attention than that of subtropical MBLCs, is investigated globally for the first time using cloud mask data from the CALIPSO satellite with high accuracy on the height estimation.
- Clear seasonal variations in the cloud top height of mid-latitude MBLCs and the frequency of fog occurrence are found over the North Pacific and the northwest Atlantic, whereas those seasonal variations over the Southern Ocean are not well defined (Fig. 1).
- High correlations were found between the MBLC top height and stability indexes, and between the fog frequency and some surface parameters including temperature difference between the surface air and the sea surface (Fig. 2).
Yamashita et al. (2015)
Yamashita, Y., H. Akiyoshi, T. G. Shepherd, and M. Takahashi, 2015: The combined influences of westerly phase of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and 11-year solar maximum conditions on the Northern Hemisphere extratropical winter circulation. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 93, 629-644.
Special Edition on Contributions to Asia Oceania Atmospheric Sciences
http://doi.org/10.2151/jmsj.2015-054 Graphical Abstract
- The combined influences of westerly phase of the QBO (QBO-W) and solar maximum (Smax) conditions on the Northern Hemisphere extratropical winter circulation are investigated using reanalysis data and CCSR/NIES Chemistry Climate Model (CCM) simulations.
- The composite analysis indicates strengthened polar vortex in December followed by weakened polar vortex in February–March for QBO-W during Smax (QBO-W/Smax) conditions (Fig. 1).
- In December, the dynamical processes related to the QBO-W and Smax may work in concert to maintain the stronger vortex during QBO-W/Smax.
- The amplification of tropospheric wavenumber 1 (WN1) wave in January during QBO-W/Smax results in the enhancement of upward WN1 propagation from troposphere into stratosphere, leading to the weakened polar vortex in February–March. Although wavenumber 2 (WN2) waves do not play a direct role in forcing the stratospheric vortex evolution, their tropospheric response to QBO-W/Smax conditions appears to be related to the maintenance of westerly wind anomaly in the high-latitude troposphere in January (Fig. 2).